Clark's Nutcracker with Whitebark Pine Seed, Snowbank Mountain, Idaho

Nutcrackers – Not the Kind You’re Thinking – and Mutualism


Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species each benefits from the activity of the other. The different species could exist independently of each other, but have evolved a relationship by which both benefit. The Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a high altitude pine tree, whose range includes the Idaho batholith. In those latitudes, it only…